We have “Carefully” scoured through ALOT of the “Affiliate Networks” in hopes of adding the right content for our visitors. The trueth is; whether it be the least popular networks OR the top notch programs, they each have various conditions which will screw you from generating revenue. Adding their links and promoting their advertisers is nothing more than a waste of YOUR time and YOUR webspace if you don’t get paid to have them there sooo, don’t get in a hurry to join any affiliate programs until you read through their “Terms & Conditions” thoroughly and completely!

How established is your site/blog/social media following?  Do you already have an audience of 1 million or are you just getting started?  Early on in your affiliate marketing journey you will probably want to have multiple options to make sure you can cover a broad field. You might want to become an Amazon Associate as well as joining one of the networks so you will have a product link to drop into any posts you do.  An easy place to start is to promote the services you are using if you are enjoying their product - web hosting or email management systems like Aweber.

Recurring affiliate programs are definitely the way to make serious income online. If you can add high paying affiliate programs, then you will notice a big increase in your monthly revenue which will allow you to go full time if that is your ambition. Harsh has a good list of programs in the internet marketing field but there are residual programs in many other niches such as health and beauty. So no matter what the topic of your blog/site, look out for some form of recurring income otherwise you are really missing out.
12. Avangate Avangate is a player in digital commerce that you may not be familiar with. Avangate, backed by a cloud platform, focuses on online commerce, subscription billing, and global payments for Software, SaaS and Online Services companies. More than 4000 digital businesses in over 180 countries trust Avangate including Absolute Software, Bitdefender, Brocade, FICO, HP Software, Kaspersky Lab, Telestream, Spyrix and CleverControl.
All written content on this site is for information purposes only. Opinions expressed herein are solely those of AWM, unless otherwise specifically cited. Material presented is believed to be from reliable sources and no representations are made by our firm as to another parties’ informational accuracy or completeness. All information or ideas provided should be discussed in detail with an advisor, accountant or legal counsel prior to implementation.

Expedia itself negotiates directly with the suppliers to secure access to inventory, including packages and rates. The brand claims that it features leading conversion rates, meanwhile each qualifying transaction made through a link gives you a share of the revenue (varies, up to 12%). Tools, data feeds, and storefronts are also all available for partners.
I couldn’t talk about the basics of internet marketing without talking about social media marketing. Social media is still one of the best ways to connect with people, expand your brand, and engage new readers. Social media marketing comes in a variety of forms. There are the standards like providing interesting content through social media sites like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, but other forms of social media marketing like community building sites, forums, and message boards like Pinterest or StumbleUpon are also quite valuable. Creating shareable content for a variety of social media sites is the key to successful social media marketing.
However, it isn’t enough to blog frequently. The content you create and distribute online must also be well-crafted, relevant to your chosen keyword, and useful to the audience who discovers it. Blogging gives you another way to communicate with your market, and it is a powerful way to build brand loyalty and trust. Publishing high-quality content also increases the chances that other pages will link to it, which will help your company’s SERP (search engine page rankings).
A U.K. based dating affiliate network that operates a number of mainstream and niche dating sites, including Cupid.com, Flirt.com, BoomerDating.com and PlanetSappho.com. You can promote any of these sites based upon the needs of your audience, and with so many sites to choose from, it’s pretty easy for most affiliates to find at least one or two that are a good fit. Commission rates at Cupid plc can be impressive, too, with $15 paid just for free sign ups, and up to 90 percent commission paid on paid memberships.
Promote Your Web site. There is a popular misconception that Web sites do not need to be promoted. Consider that some of the Web's biggest successes spend about 75% of their advertising budgets on non-Internet media. Having a Web site is like having a toll-free number that's not listed in every phone book...you need to work hard to drive visitors to your Web site. As with any other media, it costs money to make it a success. Plaster your Web site address (URL) everywhere you can -- at trade show appearances, on business cards, stationary, in ads and everywhere else you can think of.
Leadpages is the topmost tool for internet marketers. As a tool, they let anyone create a landing page within minutes & add it on their platform including WordPress, Drupal & all the popular platforms you can think of. I have been using them for almost a year & I must say it’s a great investment for an end user. At the same time, they offer an affiliate program which lets you earn a lifetime commission of 30%.
I work as a freelancer and I also often use different affiliate programs, often associated with site designers or hosting providers. For me personally, this is a good extra income to the main orders. Recently, I also tried an affiliate program from the form designer and calculators https://ucalc.pro/en/affiliates Earnings, of course, less than on site designers and hosting, but constant. The bottom line is that I register a client in the service and plus to the whole I create a calculator on it for the client. Clients are happy and my money goes 🙂
It is especially important to keep track of the ROI when it comes to expensive disciplines in online marketing such as Google AdWords campaigns. This makes it possible to control the profitability of advertising measures. When it comes to paid advertisement, you have to also take into account the probable scatter loss. If you don’t plan carefully, you will end up wasting money.
Investing in rental properties: Another form of real estate investment, rental investments (i.e. becoming a landlord) could steer you down the passive income path of steady monthly rent checks that you can use to pay off a mortgage loan on the rental property. After the mortgage is paid off, those monthly checks go right into your bank account -- potentially for years to come. 
This can be a little easier said than done, but if you have a large social media following, you can definitely earn money promoting a product or advertising for a company. You can even combine this with different marketing campaigns if you are an influencer and have your own blog (advertisement + affiliate income). This is how many bloggers make money! Again, it is not 100% passive but once set up correctly and then scaled, can be surprisingly lucrative.

The most important thing in affiliate marketing is your website. Not only do you need to have a website to sell your affiliate products but it needs to be an attractive, well-designed, easy-to-navigate site. Think about how many times you have gone to a website and it was cluttered with advertisements, or you couldn’t find the menu bar, or it took forever to load, and you just immediately got frustrated and looked for the information elsewhere. Often times when we think about the basics of internet marketing, we overlook the most basic important part of our brand.
Using a platform such as Google Analytics is a must for collecting data such as what pages people visit, what products they bought after their first purchase, how much time they spend on certain pages, what pages they visit after, age, gender, geographical area of your customers and more. The trick in using Google Analytics is to take this data and use it across platforms to scale up results.
Once you have your own strategy, you should let other departments in the company know so that they can coordinate their actions with yours. If you want to create a successful marketing mix, you need to stop seeing each approach as an isolated case. If you consider channels as independent disciplines, without thinking about the marketing mix, then you could face some problems. For example, you could end up circulating duplicate content or, even worse, distributing content on different channels that contradicts each other.
Awesome list! and great tips. Except one thing… There are a few products that Amazon won’t pay you commissions on, mostly electronics. there’s a list they have somewhere outlining them. They aren’t very many on the list but they are some of the hottest products in the market now. I think Amazon’s affiliate program gets worse every year. But luckily there are other options out there.
You’ve probably heard of affiliate marketing before – it’s when you earn a commission by promoting a product. The product you promote online should be something you’re knowledgeable about and that you believe is high quality. Common sense, right? You’d be surprised by how many affiliate marketers forget that principle, but that’s a whole other story.
Also just known as SEO (it’s not some company position for those of you who are confused) is a great tool to use when promoting products. It basically is a process that allows the visibility of a website among search engines by using “natural or organic” searches. Although this does not really bring you results right away, it can be very productive in the future as long as you use white hat techniques. If you keep using clean methods to direct traffic in your website then you will surely reap its benefits in the end.
Affiliate marketing is all about marketing of other companies products and making commission by advertising their product or in other words we can say that Affiliate marketing is an online sales techniques that let a product owner grow its sales by allowing others targeting the same audience - “affiliates” - to earn a commission by promoting the product to others.
*Yes: As you may have guessed, the link above is my two-tier affiliate link. There are a few of these links on this site to pay me a small commission and allow me to keep this site free instead of a monthly membership site. Using my two-tier affiliate link will not affect the amount of commission paid to you with this or any other program. My commissions are paid out of the vendor’s cut, not yours.

Blogs that cover consumables usually don’t have the same issue. If your blog is about laptops or mobile phones or PDAs or iPods or cars or sporting equipment or…you get the picture, there is a natural inclination of the reader to be a buyer. You generally don’t read a blog about cameras if you are not intending to buy a camera or camera accessories at some point in the near future.


In traditional retail, customers can be personally advised – they should be wooed, cared for, and above all, well-informed. This shouldn’t be any different online, but many marketers forget this basic online marketing principle. Businesses should appeal to customers and try and win them over with their online marketing tactics. Unlike in brick-and-mortar stores, where the shoppers come of their own accord, online is a bit more challenging online as you need to find potential customers in the first place. This is why it’s so important to know your target group so that you know which adverts are better suited to them. Web analysis is an important tool that every marketer should use to measure, analyze, and maximize their online success. By using analysis tools like Google Analytics, you can obtain information about your own target group, its online behavior, and how to go about winning them over.
Either way, arm yourself with a powerful SEO monitoring tool like Monitor Backlinks and really get to work on improving the flow of organic traffic coming to you from search engines. I recommend this tool in particular because I use it myself (see below), plus it’s easy for newbies to navigate and is accessible to every affiliate thanks to its 30-day free trial.
- HubPages.com is a content community for writers. Members (referred to as "Hubbers") are given their own sub-domain, where they can post content rich articles (known as Hubs). As a Hubber, you earn revenue primarily from Google AdSense (you need your own Adsense account) and other advertising vehicles such as, Kontera, and the eBay and Amazon Affiliate programs. There is a 60:40 revenue split and it’s achieved by alternating the code used in advertisements: Your code will be displayed 60% of the time, and HubPages' code 40%. Same as Squidoo, traffic dropped heavily due to Google's changes but the site is still wildly popular. Currently it’s one of the 500 most visited US sites on the Internet.
Please be aware that some of our services provided may list estimated dates and timelines for delivery or completion. Although we always attempt to deliver all services by the date provided, these estimates are merely good faith estimates and are non-binding in nature. We reserve the right to modify, alter, or extend any estimates at our discretion. We will not be held responsible or liable for any failure to provide any services before any estimated dates. 

Affiliate marketing tool vNative is built around the idea of providing organizations with absolute control over their marketing campaigns. Using the software, campaigns can be built, automated, assessed and optimized from a singular dashboard. Users are allowed to tweak virtually any area of their marketing campaigns. Campaign models such as CPA, CPI, CPC, CPV AND CPI can be created using the system, which can be likewise promoted by providing advertisers, affiliates and partners access to the same. A real time view of all types of statistics can be viewed, allowing for better decision-making. vNative comes with a native API that lets the system integrate with numerous applications.


As well as providing services, we are keen on educating our readers with the content we publish. Some of the links you see in our posts/guides/tutorials have affiliate links, meaning if you decide to purchase a product or sign-up for the service using our links, we get a commission (at no additional cost to you). We’ve published a lot of posts, and can’t keep track of every affiliate link. So, please assume that every link is affiliate before clicking away. Also, we do not recommend the tools & products we don’t admire, even if they offer decent commission rates.


However, there’s a big difference between what is possible and what is likely. Success on the level that Gold achieved with her song is rare. Many people imagine that if they just produce an e-book, album, or video and offer it up for sale on the Web, they can simply sit back and watch the profits roll in. And Internet hucksters are quick to feed this belief, offering up their own e-books that promise, for $20 a pop, to teach you everything you need to know to write a bestselling e-book in your spare time and make enough to quit your day job.
If you have a specific and in-depth expertise, like programming, coaching, or consulting, then having a well written sales page on your own website can be rewarding. I do this with my web design, SEO, Social media, and coaching services. If you want to become a highly-paid freelancer, I highly recommend you first build your own online platform so you can share your professional expertise, knowledge, and life story with the world. Here's how to start your first website in less than 24 Hours.
Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!
Apps Discover is an outstanding platform offering one of the most lucrative offers for affiliate marketers. They have a wide range of offers, with high payouts, easy tracking, and weekly payments. Their optimized tracking methods helps the affiliates to visualize their actual results. The most amazing thing about Apps Discover is they are very clear with their payment policies and in order to maintain a long-term association with their affiliates they make payments on a weekly basis.
Email marketing, as I have written about before, is superior to other forms of online marketing because of how much attention people give to email and the speed of response. People read emails constantly and will do so as emails come in. Blogs command attention too, but people consume blogs when they want to, it is not a form of forced attention like email is currently consumed.
Unfortunately, I can’t answer that conclusively one way or the other. It all depends on you, what you like to do, your work ethic, personality, etc. If you are a good writer perhaps you could write a book and make money that way. Or, you could start your own website and do affiliate marketing. Just because you are young it doesn’t mean you can’t make money doing at least a few of these ideas. I wish you luck in your money making efforts!
Wow! What an awesome list! My favorite is the stock photography because I love photography. I have had some success there, particularly with one photo I make some decent income from. I think the key with stock photography is finding a shot that is high demand. Then, find a new unique way to frame that shot. This is the reason my St. Louis Arch photo is a top 10 on both ShutterStock and iStockPhoto. Thanks for the awesome ideas above!
I 1st learned about affiliate marketing back in 2005 when I went on Walmart.com as a thought came to me to visit the site for no reason. Not long afterwards, I started a free blog on blogspot, not knowing what I was doing nor knowing anything about blogging. 2006 came and I flew to Santa Barbara, California to an event to see how real affiliate marketing was. Then I struggled as years went by with online marketing. I made money from eBaY, Walmart, and a few other affiliate programs. Been hooked ever since. I do create content now on a daily basis and love the side hustle millionaire mentality. I wish I knew how to do this back in 1999 when I was still working crappy jobs. I prolly would’ve been close to $20 million richer by now and loaded with $ gUaP $ ! :-)
Use Internet advertising where it makes sense. Internet advertising has been pushed as a direct-response device, but the B2B process is far more complex and longer than with B2C. Where a B2C ad may attempt to get a consumer to make a purchase, this is not realistic for high-ticket B2B items. Instead, B2B marketers should consider using Internet advertising to reach targets that regularly use the Internet at the places they often go with ads that feature things like white papers, research, Web seminars and other information that is likely to be of strong interest to prospects.
Airbnb is a concept that has only been around for a few years, but it has exploded around the globe. Airbnb allows people to travel all around the world and to stay in accommodations that are a lot less expensive than traditional hotels. They do this by staying with participating Airbnb members who rent out part of their homes to travelers. By participating in Airbnb, you can use your residence to accommodate guests and earn extra money just for renting out space in your home.
Let someone else do the heavy lifting. By installing a few pixels you can allow advertising platforms to collect data about your customers and learn more about their online behaviors. These pixels will then work as a targeting tool and help the advertising platforms to find additional users with similar online behaviors with the goal to increase your online sales.
Wow! What an awesome list! My favorite is the stock photography because I love photography. I have had some success there, particularly with one photo I make some decent income from. I think the key with stock photography is finding a shot that is high demand. Then, find a new unique way to frame that shot. This is the reason my St. Louis Arch photo is a top 10 on both ShutterStock and iStockPhoto. Thanks for the awesome ideas above!
After more than a decade experience with the commercial web, you’d think major marketers would consider the web more than an afterthought. However, evidence reveals many consumer marketers still can’t distinguish between a website, an ad or a brochure. While retailers like Wal-Mart, Lowes, Nordstrom and Circuit City get it, there are others that still seem confused. When clothing retailer Gap
As you may have noticed, the above list is merely alphabetical. Keep also in mind that many of the above are significantly broader than a pure “affiliate network”. Some of them provide true all-in-one solutions that empower software vendors with everything needed to sell their product online (from online interfaces to payment processing, and much more).
After more than a decade experience with the commercial web, you’d think major marketers would consider the web more than an afterthought. However, evidence reveals many consumer marketers still can’t distinguish between a website, an ad or a brochure. While retailers like Wal-Mart, Lowes, Nordstrom and Circuit City get it, there are others that still seem confused. When clothing retailer Gap
It is important that you direct traffic to your blog but in order to do that, the tactics you should use must be “organic” so it will be read by search engines. Adding banner advertisements will do wonders for your website.  Make sure to place them appropriately in your site and avoid mixing with other products that will only confuse your visitors.
Forgive the self-promotion, but I'll be speaking and participating in a roundtable at Crain's BtoB's NetMarketing Breakfast in Chicago this Thursday, October 6th. I've been strugling between two presentations, one regarding a significant study that breaks apart and measures each vehicle of marketing campaigns -- television, print, Internet, search engine marketing, radio spots, etc.; the other
Azam Marketing’s network enables advertisers to promote their products and services to over 325 million people via 29,000 affiliates, influencers, emailers and bloggers we have built relationships with since the 1990s. This includes the option of reaching out to millions of visitors, followers and subscribers via Azam Marketing’s internal websites, social media assets and opt-in email databases.
In order not to succumb to that, Flynn says it’s important to know your motivation. “Passive income is important to me not just for the financial security but so I can spend time with my family,” he says. “I’ve been able to work from home and witness all my kids’ firsts. I have a one-year-old and a four-year-old, and that's what drives me and gets me pushing through those hard times and why I keep creating new products and why I want to help other people do the same thing.”
I just started doing affiliate marketing for Amazon and other sites like CJ and Rakuten. Am still a newbie and currently learning about AM and I must admit that your post did open my eyes especially on things like cookie duration, conversion rate, refund rate. I also did take note of Skimlinks and will definitely be checking out AffiloBlueprint. Thanks Ana!
It's common blogosphere wisdom that to keep a blog alive, you need to keep to a rigorous publishing schedule. Well, if you've kept up with my blog, or even if you haven't and you notice the dates of previous posts, we're about to put that assumption to a test, as I make my re-entry into the blogosphere.But first, a little disclosure. For those cynics out there, you may see this (perhaps,

Hey there, I’m Mahesh (@maheshone). I started learning and doing and experimenting web 2.0 stuff back in 2004 and eventually became a full-time computer nerd after graduation. Minterest is a digital marketing and technology journal that I founded in 2007 to feed my super curiosity (oh yeah, I’m a solo-blogger). I write about tech, marketing, and everything in between that excites me. And I love to work with small businesses to help them get the most out of the web. Outside of that, I'm equally passionate about the financial markets and I also spend a lot of time doing random things (see random facts about me). Say hi: @maheshone. Read More »

*Yes: As you may have guessed, the link above is my two-tier affiliate link. There are a few of these links on this site to pay me a small commission and allow me to keep this site free instead of a monthly membership site. Using my two-tier affiliate link will not affect the amount of commission paid to you with this or any other program. My commissions are paid out of the vendor’s cut, not yours.
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.
More Job Flexibility. When your job is your only source of income, you’re dependent on it. You’ll put up with unpleasant working conditions or unreasonable demands from a boss, because giving up your job would leave you with nothing to live on. But if you have some passive income to fall back on, you can afford to be choosier. You can cut back on your work hours and let your passive income make up for the lost wages. If you don’t like your current job, you can afford to ditch it for a new one that pays less, eking out your lower paycheck with passive income. And if you lose your job altogether, you’ll still have at least a little income to tide you over until you find a new one.
And then there are those things called affiliate networks, which are also considered as good marketing tools. They basically make it simple for affiliates (publishers) to take part of the strategies that benefit their respective websites. These networks share their website resources that advertisers or merchants may employ in their advertising efforts. It’s a lot like a mutual relationship, with affiliates being to able to produce income by helping sellers broaden their customer reach through the affiliate network. These networks generate revenue two ways: through revenue sharing and fee for action. Affiliate networks are commonly used by publishers for free but may charge an initial fees or subsequent monthly charges. So don’t confuse affiliate networks with affiliate marketing software although some of these sites are often referred to as solutions.
When most people think of investing opportunities, they think of stocks, bonds, and precious metals. While these are still some of the most common ways to invest, the platforms have evolved, and there are more options than ever. Gone are the days of mountains of paperwork, high brokerage fees and unattainable account minimums. Now you can invest on your own terms.
Flexoffers.com is another well-known affiliate that we have included in our top best affiliate programs. This program is well-established affiliate marketer that has gained a lot of reputation because of offering big offers on digital products, keeping their affiliates relevant. When a company offers large offers, more clients are likely to purchase, meaning more money to the merchants and affiliates.
First and foremost, without even putting much efforts, you’re expanding your catalogue. But be careful. You don’t want to overcrowd your store with irrelevant and slow-moving products. Staying on top of the trends means that you sell what sells Right Now. At the same time, you must make sure that your marketing expenses remain as low as possible and the entire marketing process is as efficient as possible. Targeting specific audience is easy, less expensive and pays off great. Needless to say, your profits increase while you simultaneously build customer trust and loyalty.
Anyone can be an affiliate, that’s why it’s one of the most popular ways of earning a passive income online. Amazon Associates offers up to 12% advertising fees, while Shopify pays up to $2,000 for new merchant referrals. But partnering with these big players isn’t the only way to capitalize on affiliate marketing. For example, blogger Caitlyn Pyle has shown how she earned $14,063 in six days from just one affiliate product. When executed to perfection, affiliate marketing can be incredibly valuable to the reader and immensely profitable to the affiliate.
Expedia itself negotiates directly with the suppliers to secure access to inventory, including packages and rates. The brand claims that it features leading conversion rates, meanwhile each qualifying transaction made through a link gives you a share of the revenue (varies, up to 12%). Tools, data feeds, and storefronts are also all available for partners.
I wouldn't think of a high yield savings account as a source of passive income but your savings should be getting something (less like Seinfeld syndication residuals and more like a commercial jingle residuals!). It won't make you rich but it's nice if your baseline, risk-free rate of return on cash is 1% or more. The best high yield savings accounts (or money market accounts) offer higher interest rate and there is absolutely no risk. CIT Bank currently leads the pack with the highest interest rate.
One of the basics of product promotion. You can write about your product as freely as you want as long as your website contains or features a blog. You can write about your product reviews or create infographics that readers can share in their plugins. You can also write tutorials as this one of the latest trends in creating new content. In case you don’t write at all, you can also invite a guest post writer that can help you with your product promotion or be a guest post writer yourself if you are up for it. Anything is possible with blogging these days!
Once you have understand the basics of internet marketing, you also need to make sure you understand how to measure your results. That is where analytics comes into play. You can get analytics from a variety of free software tools and website plugins to tell you everything from how many people are visiting your site everyday, what people are reading on your website, and what efforts are driving new visitors to your website. These analytics are crucial to understanding what works and what doesn’t in any of your internet marketing campaigns, so you can focus your efforts on the things that are bringing you success. The best analytics program to use is Google Analytics. It’s free and easy to set up on your site, as you can see in the video below.
Your website isn’t the only space you can rent out for advertising. There are companies that are willing to pay to utilize your car as a mobile billboard. They do this by covering your car with a removable, full-body vinyl decal, known as an auto wrap. Then you drive it around as you normally would for the duration of the ad campaign, and the company pays you a few hundred dollars per month.
It is especially important to keep track of the ROI when it comes to expensive disciplines in online marketing such as Google AdWords campaigns. This makes it possible to control the profitability of advertising measures. When it comes to paid advertisement, you have to also take into account the probable scatter loss. If you don’t plan carefully, you will end up wasting money.

In this example, a blogger might put this link on their blog to try to get their readers to click through to your “blue widget” page and hopefully buy something. If the visitor who clicks on this link actually buys something, affiliate tracking software will automatically (usually – depends on what system you are using) pay your affiliate a percentage of the sale.
This is an ideal strategy if you live in an area where real estate prices are too high to realistically invest in, or you don’t want the hassle and expense of traveling all over the country visiting potential properties. Plus, if you are new to single-family real estate investing, letting a place like Roofstock guide you through the process is a great way to get your feet wet.
Your website can manage affiliate traffic. Before you begin thinking about investing in this marketing scheme, you must also determine if your website is capable of managing affiliate traffic. Otherwise, you will need to find an application that offers attribution tracking to ensure that you are accurate in sorting the leads that your affiliates generate.
As an affiliate, all that is required of you is to simply place the merchant's ad on your website. Then after that, you virtually do nothing but wait for anyone to click on the merchant's ad and later collect your profits. Easy, right? Well, not quite often. Many affiliates earn almost nothing from their affiliate programs simply because they do nothing. Remember that affiliate marketing is but another form of marketing, and you'll definitely need to market your merchant's product for you to earn something.
Faster Lead Generation. Apart from facilitating a placements marketplace and providing pay-per-call solutions to promote products in a variety of distribution channels, CJ Affiliate also has lead generation options. This allows publishers who want to generate better revenue to connect with advertisers who are interested in going beyond traditional affiliate sales to boost their business.
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