Hey there, I’m Mahesh (@maheshone). I started learning and doing and experimenting web 2.0 stuff back in 2004 and eventually became a full-time computer nerd after graduation. Minterest is a digital marketing and technology journal that I founded in 2007 to feed my super curiosity (oh yeah, I’m a solo-blogger). I write about tech, marketing, and everything in between that excites me. And I love to work with small businesses to help them get the most out of the web. Outside of that, I'm equally passionate about the financial markets and I also spend a lot of time doing random things (see random facts about me). Say hi: @maheshone. Read More »
Affiliate marketing is rewarding to anyone who is in the online business given that they know what to do but for those who are new to this concept, it could be pretty mind-boggling. However, it is also a great way to earn money online the moment you know its twists and turns. If you are planning to embark in affiliate marketing then I am happy to share with you these helpful techniques to assist you in promoting affiliate products online.
As one of the largest online retailers, ClickBank harnesses the awesome power of our digital marketing partners combined with a vast library of over 6 million unique products in order to reach 200 million customers around the world. We are committed to featuring products that satisfy our customers and providing entrepreneurs with the right tools and resources they need to create, publish and market their products in order to grow their business.
While affiliate marketers are generally able to join affiliate networks for free, merchants usually have to pay a fee to participate in the network. Affiliate networks usually charge an initial setup fee for each merchant and often a recurring membership fee. It’s also common practice for affiliate networks to charge merchants a percentage of the commissions paid to affiliates. This percentage is known as an ‘over-ride’ and is payable on top of the affiliates commissions. But make no mistake about it, despite these fees, the benefits to the merchant for joining these networks is well worth the price. Here’s why…

He is the co-founder of Neil Patel Digital. The Wall Street Journal calls him a top influencer on the web, Forbes says he is one of the top 10 marketers, and Entrepreneur Magazine says he created one of the 100 most brilliant companies. Neil is a New York Times bestselling author and was recognized as a top 100 entrepreneur under the age of 30 by President Obama and a top 100 entrepreneur under the age of 35 by the United Nations.
Now I’ve been using Swagbucks for a while and have found the money works out to just under $2 an hour so this isn’t something that’s going to make you rich. You’d have to work 2,500 hours to make $5,000 so that’s about three and a half months, non-stop. The thing with Swagbucks though is you can do it when you’re doing something else so I flip through surveys and other stuff while I’m cooking dinner or flipping channels.

I am currently in the process of desiging and setting up a blog, and am learning affiliate and product marketing more in depth. It is unfortunate that so many blogs just ‘dump’ a load of advertising and adsense and hope for the best, with no thoughts as to how their visitors view the barrage of ads. Make a living yes, but as Yaro points out dont drown your blog in affiliate products!
Thanks for a nice job. I am currently promoting some of the affiliate programs listed here and making a few dollars from them. But I must say that making money from affiliate programs is not rocket science; it requires hard work and perseverance. Affiliate marketing keeps evolving daily and any serious affiliate should be ready to change tactics and invest time and money in order to beat the competition.
Our software automates the entire process of creating a powerful automated webinar system that you can host on our servers, or you can install on your own servers. Evergreen Business System is one of the most renown brands in the Internet Marketing industry, and certainly a market leader within the webinars niche. There are over 5,000 happy customers and more and more join in every day.
Don’t just hope and pray that visitors will buy; setup everything correctly and make it happen! If you think that visitors will click on your affiliate links and buy just because you placed dozens of affiliate links on your website then you are wrong! You need to have a structured plan in place. Affiliate marketing is a business so you will have a much better chance of succeeding if you treat it like one.
Use your company's Web site to enhance customer service -- especially for prospects who may be researching. The Internet allows your company to stay in touch with its customers and provide them with answers to questions they are likely to ask. Make sure your site makes it easy for your customers to find what they want and communicate with your company. A good corporate Web site helps current customers and develops new customers too. Consider real-time online help systems.
LinkConnector has struggled to stand out from the pack but nonetheless has managed to sign some exclusive deals with big name brands, including Writer’s Digest, the Disney Store, Ironman, Hats.com, and Everly. Their strictly controlled screening process for both merchants/advertisers and affiliates/publishers means that you can always rely on the quality of products on offer.

This is where authentic experience comes in. When you have experienced the problem, attempted to solve it by using a product, then you are in a position to inherently understand the questions your readers are asking. If you can’t draw on authentic experiences and a genuine understanding of where your reader is coming from, it is difficult to write a review that sells.
Spicyoffers is a Swiss-made private affiliate network that’s open only to handpicked publishers. You can promote their affiliate offers via website, social media, email, search, or even pay-per-call. If you have expertise in certain marketing channels you can get direct access to exclusive merchants that match your traffic. They also propose their in-house e-Commerce offers in exclusivity on the network. New offers are added every week.

A U.K. based dating affiliate network that operates a number of mainstream and niche dating sites, including Cupid.com, Flirt.com, BoomerDating.com and PlanetSappho.com. You can promote any of these sites based upon the needs of your audience, and with so many sites to choose from, it’s pretty easy for most affiliates to find at least one or two that are a good fit. Commission rates at Cupid plc can be impressive, too, with $15 paid just for free sign ups, and up to 90 percent commission paid on paid memberships.
ViewThrough Tracking Functionality. Whether you are implementing a revenue share or flat rate commission system, forging equitable relationships with publishers is crucial if you want to make your affiliate marketing campaign work. With CJ Affiliate’s ViewThrough tracking feature, you can properly incentivize publishers by leveraging the software’s tracking technology and suite of reporting tools.
Search engine marketing (SEM) is one of today’s most important online marketing channels. But what exactly is search engine marketing? And how do its subcomponents SEO and SEA vary from one another? By adhering to fundamental marketing measures for web searches, website operators are able to optimize strategic aspects of their websites, thereby gaining more visitors and enhancing their web...
In short, both the affiliate marketer and the merchant will benefit in this program as the merchant will sell more goods and the affiliate marketer will get a commission for every product bought through his/her website.  Many affiliate marketers earn a nice monthly income from selling other peoples’ products!  Later, YOU TOO could be producing your very own products and collaborating with one of the top 10 affiliate programs below to enlist an army of bloggers and website owners to help you become financially free.

Affiliate Disclaimer: In no event will we be liable for any loss or damage including without limitation, indirect or consequential loss or damage, or any loss or damage whatsoever arising from loss of data or profits arising out of, or in connection with, the use of this website. Through this website you are able to link to other websites which are not under the control of MarketHealth.com. We have no control over the nature, content and availability of those sites. The inclusion of any links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorse the views expressed within them.


Email marketing is still an extremely important aspect of internet marketing and it shouldn’t be overlooked. Building an email list of your followers through opt-ins ensures a direct line to your readers. The contacts on your email list are people who want to hear from you and you also know exactly what they are interested in. So make sure that from the start you collect email addresses to build an email list so you can start building loyal readership. Make sure to regularly update everyone on your list with interesting newsletters, information about your content updates, and any other unique or engaging business developments.
Who doesn’t like some down and dirty affiliate fees?!  Especially if you realize it can be even easier to make money this way than with an ebook.  After all, you simply need to concentrate on pumping out some content for your own site and getting the traffic in, often via Google or social media.  Unsurprisingly, most people can enjoy their first affiliate sale within 30 days of starting a blog.  Continue reading >
Internet marketing refers to any form of advertising or marketing on the web. It’s an all-inclusive term to define promotions via emails, social media posts, paid advertisements on search engines, etc. As user demographics get younger, companies of all sizes are switching their focus from the traditional television, radio and newspaper ads to the Internet, where they can reach a larger, more relevant audience for less money.
This is an ideal strategy if you live in an area where real estate prices are too high to realistically invest in, or you don’t want the hassle and expense of traveling all over the country visiting potential properties. Plus, if you are new to single-family real estate investing, letting a place like Roofstock guide you through the process is a great way to get your feet wet.
To start your affiliate marketing journey, make sure you sign up for my Affiliate Marketing Masterclass, which will walk you through five steps to finally begin generating an additional passive income stream using authentic affiliate marketing strategies I’ve used myself. Click the link below to sign up for the next Affiliate Marketing Masterclass:
You can also sell ad space on your site directly, wherein sponsors pay a certain amount of money per month up front to display their ads on your website. You can seek out advertisers directly by contacting companies that sell products and services related to your site’s content. Or, you can use a site like BuySellAds to let companies know you have space to sell. However, unless your site gets a lot of traffic – say, at least 10,000 unique visitors per day – you’re not likely to find many sponsors interested in advertising with you.
stREITwise offers a hybrid investment between traditional REIT fund investing and the new crowdfunding. The fund is like a real estate investment trust in that it holds a collection of properties but more like crowdfunding in its management. The fund has paid a 10% annualized return since inception and is a great way to diversify your real estate exposure.
Books. For a writer, producing a manuscript is just the first step. If you want it to sell, you should get feedback on it from other writers – preferably successful ones – and go through multiple rounds of editing to turn it into a professional-quality work. You could even consider hiring an editor to whip your manuscript into shape, particularly if you have trouble with mechanics such as grammar and punctuation. Then you need to either use some page layout software to turn your manuscript into a readable book, or otherwise hire a professional to do it for you.
Given that I am still in reading and preparation phase, I am mainly interested to overlap my niche with real life interests so I could have motivation to produce content on regular basis. Two that I am highly interested are PC parts and Fitness. I am aware they are too general subjects with lot of sites doing the same, but my idea is to produce constant review on PC parts, Laptops, Mobile devices, Accessories all in different categories, create lists like top5 or 10 under XX budget etc. Similar approach I would use if I I decide to go with Fitness path and divide content training advice, review of fat loss methods, supplementation, nutrition etc. I am aware that this will be a long journey and that it can pass few months before sales start to kick in and that’s the risk I am ready to take. My questions are:
When do you want to get started?  If you are just starting and have no audience then some of the programs may not accept your application to become an affiliate, while others will let you get set up in minutes.  If you want to get started straight away then make sure you’re applying for programs that are less restrictive. Generally the larger, network style places will enable you to get going quickly while specific niche programs may require you to have a certain audience size or characteristics.
Do you know of a successful business that needs capital for expansion? If so, you can become something of a small-time angel investor and provide that needed capital. But rather than offering a loan to a business owner, you instead take an equity position in the business. In this way, the business owner will handle the day-to-day operations, while you will act as a silent partner who also participates in the profits of the business.

There are other alternatives that let you keep a bigger cut of the sales – but those sales might not be as much. For instance, you can publish an e-book through Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing and sell it on the Kindle Store, earning royalties of up to 70%. Or you can set up a web store where you can post PDFs, audio files, and video files for download, so your fans can buy them from you directly. However, you won’t necessarily reach a lot of people this way, and you could spend years writing and peddling your works online for $0.99 apiece before they produce a passive income stream that’s bigger than a trickle.
Blogging is still going to take work starting out. That path to $5,000 a month didn’t happen overnight but just like real estate development, it build up an asset that now creates constant cash flow whether I work or not. I get over 30,000 visitors a month from Google search rankings, rankings that will continue to send traffic even if I take a little time off.

Hey Rolando! Great article! I've actually hired a few freelancers to do some online marketing for me. Although, of course, not everyone is an expert at everything, but with a little direction, you can get the most out of your marketing experts. Hope this helps too... Here's a great list of questions to ask marketing candidates. I chanced upon this and actually ask some questions similar to the ones found on this list: http://www.growthmarketingpro.com/hiring-a-marketer-here-are-the-17-most-important-questions-to-ask Cheers and more power!


Affiliate networks offer you access to multiple (and by multiple, we mean hundreds if not thousands) of individual affiliate programs. They basically work by simplifying the signup process - instead of applying to become an affiliate for a each product you want to promote, you simply apply to join the network and instantly have access to hundreds of different affiliate offers.

Your Brand Persona and Target Audience. When you eventually start creating content, you have to know who you’re talking to and tailor your brand voice to appeal to them uniquely. If you aren’t targeting the right audience (those people who will lean in to hear what you’re saying), you won’t find success. And, if you can’t find a way to stand out, you’ll blend into the hordes of other brands competing for attention in your industry.


The Software Keep affiliate program offers your audience members everything they’ll need for their computer – from Windows operating systems, Microsoft Office Suites, Office applications, as well as Internet security and anti-virus software. Sign up with FlexOffers.com to learn more about the Software Keep affiliate program today! *Please note we are not currently offering this affiliate program in our …
It is a very good idea to use different product promotion strategies so you can figure out what is working and what is not. Try to do split testing and measure the performance of each campaign then take actions accordingly. Changing a few things here and there can increase your profit dramatically. Make sure to place the banner ads on different areas of your site’s pages. Some positions will make the ads more noticeable than others.
Zetaclear, our long time top performing affiliate offer is now not only clinically proven but is also FDA Approved to prevent the growth and reproduction of fungus by inhibiting the growth of fungus cells. Over 35 million people face the yellow, brittle, and sometimes-painful symptoms associated with nail fungus and this is a huge niche market. Market this one today if you are not. Our new CPA has also increased to $50 per sale or 60% rev share.

These are but a few guidelines on how you can increase your affiliate sales and continually grow your affiliate checks. Sure there can be a lot of other tips that out there, and if you think they would work, we won't discourage you from following them. What's important is that you be able to find a way to: attract more traffic to your site, induce your visitors to click on the ads on your site, and be able to promote your merchant's products even outside the boundary of your website. If you can do these, there's no reason for you to fail in affiliate marketing.
If you try to sell a product that is in low demand then chances are that you are not going to get many sales no matter how hard you try. So it is a good idea to spend a bit of time researching and finding out if a product that you are thinking of promoting is a product that your audience needs. If your site gets decent traffic then you can conduct an online survey and easily get input from your visitors.

The last principle of our online marketing basics: never lose sight of the return on investment (ROI)! There is a simple calculation if you want to run a successful business: the benefit of an advertising measure must always be higher than the costs incurred. Online marketers use a special indicator to work this out – this is the return on investment. The ROI is used to measure the return on a business activity by showing the profit in relation to the capital invested.
The Altium affiliate program specializes in PCB design software for engineers and companies that design and manufacture printed circuit boards for a variety of electronic devices and embedded systems. The company offers a top-of-the-line solutions that leverage innovative technologies to help electrical engineers focus less on the process and more on design. This program offers a …
Liberty Classroom is a site focused on providing courses related to history and economics. If you write a blog related to such subjects you may want to join the Liberty Classroom affiliate marketing program and earn 50% commissions by promoting the site. When someone subscribes to Liberty Classroom via the affiliate link put on your blog, and stays subscribed beyond the refund period, you will earn 50% of the subscription fee.
AffTrack is a platform focused on tracking the clicks on your affiliate links. More than a tracking system, it helps businesses of all sizes power their network through applications offering prospect management CRM, device targeting, geo targeting, suppression file management, free proxy detection, and invoicing. With its customizable interface and complete selection of functionalities, you wouldn’t have to worry about finding additional integrations to make sure it suits your existing system. To utilize their platform, you may choose from their five pricing plans. It ranges from $99 to $799 a month that is differentiated by the number of clicks it can track–with 100,000 clicks being the smallest and unlimited being the largest.
PeerFly is an internationally recognized affiliate platform that dedicatedly serves advertisers and affiliates alike. Aiming to increase business sales and improve affiliates’ income, PeerFly pays its network of professionals only when a lead, sale, or other measurable transaction occurs. This unique cost-per-action pricing system has set PeerFly apart from other providers. This effort didn’t go to waste, as the network received multiple service awards given by different groups over the years. As of late, a total of over 8 million leads and sales were generated by the platform, and it has over 75,000 active publishers in at least 165 countries.
After more than a decade experience with the commercial web, you’d think major marketers would consider the web more than an afterthought. However, evidence reveals many consumer marketers still can’t distinguish between a website, an ad or a brochure. While retailers like Wal-Mart, Lowes, Nordstrom and Circuit City get it, there are others that still seem confused. When clothing retailer Gap
Convertkit is the top email marketing tool choice among bloggers and creators. It offers 30% lifetime commission and offers payment via PayPal. The automation and segmentation feature of Convertkit makes it an outstanding tool and that’s why I also use it here on ShoutMeLoud, The affiliate team is also very active and they keep running new promos that help you scaleup your affiliate game.
1. The great thing about affiliate marketing is that you don’t need a website to do it well. Having a site of your own is completely optional when it comes to affiliate marketing. You don’t need a sales letter, squeeze page or site to make a great start. After positive cash flow is achieved you can hire these things done if you want to begin building a list and take your efforts to another level, but that is only one option.

Now that you have an impressive and easy to use website, you need to make sure that people can find you. Even if you have the most beautiful site in the World with the best content possible, none of that really matters if nobody ever sees your website. There are many ways to promote your blog or website, but the absolute best way to do it is to gain lots of FREE visitors from search engines. For example, this site is all about affiliate marketing. If you go to Google and type in “Affiliate Marketer Training” this site is likely in the top few positions. You likely found my site by doing some sort of search of your own, right? Well, that’s exactly what you want to happen with your website.


Online marketing strategies vary based on the type of business and ultimate goal, however, one thing is for certain: Internet marketing is becoming a necessity. No matter your business type or size, online marketing provides a valuable way to connect with relevant customers for less. Don’t be scared off by the marketing Goliaths. The first step to success is to understanding what Internet marketing is and how your business can participate. You don’t have to be an expert to get started. With the right online marketing strategy, your company will be thriving in no time.
However, once affiliates know the damages that they inflict on those who buy WA after reading one of those fake reviews, it falls on them (cost of product, lost time, pain and suffering of failing to reach significant goals). Worse, WA’s Terms of Service puts all the legal weight on them, whereby they indemnify the company (for following the process, basically!) 

In June, he put ads on his site with Google Adsense, and within the first hour, earned $1.08 with three clicks. He earned $5 the first day, $7 the second, and then eventually began pulling in $15-$30 a day. In October, he created an ebook exam study guide priced at $19.99. By month’s end, he earned $7,906.55 — more than he had ever previously earned in a month.
In the spirit of meditation, I just came across singing bowls from iSingingBowls. These new and antique Tibetan singing bowls produce enchanting vibrational tones when struck – creating almost instant relaxation. Listen to the demos on the product pages for yourself and you’ll feel the energy it creates. It pierces through your skin – in a good way.

Calling all fashion bloggers. Reward Style is connected with a broad reach of fashion brands and retailers. The site offers an invitation-only monetization platform for top-tier digital style influencers and brands. Thousands of fashion bloggers and influencers are using Reward Style to maximise the financial success of their content, whether it’s on blogs, social media or mobile platforms.


What can I expect to earn? We use a tiered revenue share model (25%-35%) that increases partner payouts as your monthly revenue increases. The amount of revenue generated per qualified lead depends on the industry and the size of the potential software buyer. We consistently generate more revenue for partners than alternative partners or ad networks.
This is an ideal strategy if you live in an area where real estate prices are too high to realistically invest in, or you don’t want the hassle and expense of traveling all over the country visiting potential properties. Plus, if you are new to single-family real estate investing, letting a place like Roofstock guide you through the process is a great way to get your feet wet.
Unless you have worked directly in a marketing role or have run a website before, you probably do not know the basics of internet marketing. Sure, you can probably do a pretty good Google search, you might know your way around social media, and you can hold your own when it comes to online research, but actually building a site and marketing it to make money? That probably seems like a tall order, and I’m not going to lie… It will not be a fast and easy process to learn everything you need to learn. The good news is, as long as you’re willing to put in the time and effort, you can and you will learn how to build amazing affiliate marketing websites that earn you a passive income.
However, if you and a friend both have affiliate marketing deals with the same company, such as Amazon, you can boost each other’s income a bit by becoming “shopping buddies.” Whenever one of you wants to shop on that site, you visit your friend’s website and click through from there so they get the rewards. Alternatively, you can just give each other your referral codes and enter your friend’s code directly when you make a purchase. This “you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours” deal ensures that both of you earn at least some money from your affiliate arrangements.

On a much lighter note, literally, I’m convinced that anyone involved in sales and marketing can never have too many laser pointers. Because they are so small, they are prone to growing legs and never returning back to the owner. Then, come time for the next presentation meeting, you’re in a panic trying to find a laser pointer. Which is why one needs a decent supply of laser pointers in the office.
This company mainly focuses online business and internet marketing products, but there are also other products ranging from health and fitness to travel. One of the great things about DigiResults is that both vendors and affiliates get paid at the point of sale, and not a month or two later like most affiliate marketplaces. I’ve been using their system and so far it’s one of my favorites.
There are a number of affiliate networks that specialize primarily in software affiliate programs. There are clear benefits to joining these: both for software brands and for affiliates who are interested in this niche. We recommend that you consider the following ones (which have traditionally focused on everything software, SaaS, and technology):
Love this post! I agree that if you understand your audience's preference, you can customize the content for them. If you’re still sending mass emails without updating your strategies, you'd noticed that results are disappointing, despite your efforts. Thank you for sharing this post, these tips are game changers, I bet these would help a lot. A must read! https://bit.ly/2S3IdYQ
This is where authentic experience comes in. When you have experienced the problem, attempted to solve it by using a product, then you are in a position to inherently understand the questions your readers are asking. If you can’t draw on authentic experiences and a genuine understanding of where your reader is coming from, it is difficult to write a review that sells.
PopAds is one of the most searched Pop-Under ad networks. It gives out one of the most lucrative Recurring Affiliate Programs wherein you will get an opportunity to refer publishers and advertisers to its full-fledged advertising network. Their service is super-fast, efficient and highly secure. The minimum payment for PopAds is $5 payment is done via Paypal, with a payment frequency is customised (request) or automatic.
The average commission rate is $58 per the Shopify website. Shopify’s commissions are paid according to different metrics. For instance, if a referral signs up for the Shopify Plus enterprise plan (the highest tier), the payout is a flat $2,000. Referrals who sign up for the standard plan earn a $598 commission. The payout for a Basic account is $58. Commissions are calculated as follows: you will earn two times the monthly rate but only two months after the user has been a paying customer.
There are plenty of guides to marketing. From textbooks to online video tutorials, you can really take your pick. But, we felt that there was something missing — a guide that really starts at the beginning to equip already-intelligent professionals with a healthy balance of strategic and tactical advice. The Beginner’s Guide to Online Marketing closes that gap.

“I don’t believe the overnight success exists. There’s a lot of hard work and time involved beforehand,” say Flynn. Angry Birds may have seemed like an overnight success but it was the 52nd game that Rovio created. Flynn says it took him a year or year and a half to build audiences for his most successful sites. (Read these time management expert's tips on the work habits of successful people.)

There are a few advantages to taking this approach. First, you get close to 100% of your listed price (minus the transaction fee of your preferred payment gateway). Second, you are not competing with other authors and have the reader’s attention solely on your product. Third, selling your eBook on your own platform is a great opportunity to build a long term relationship with your readers via email. Fourth, you can bundle your eBook with other goodies in order to bump up the value and make it more unique. With so many advantages, it's worth putting up the time and start building your own platform.
There are lots of Amazon affiliates in this space, mostly because it’s a strong hobby (i.e. passion) niche with tons of products. Which is good, since tons of these big stores are very general in nature, making it possible for big outdoors sites to possibly even pick one or two stores to recommend (this, in turn, might have other advantages, too, like negotiating better rates with those brands).
But nowadays, there is so much opportunity if you search for brand-suitable domains and also keyword-rich or otherwise popular names on the myriad of new domain name extensions like .io, .at etc.  And I should know, because I’ve paid several domain squatters a king’s ransom to purchase these sorts of domain names in the last few years!  Continue reading >
Also, make sure that you can earn rewards on the things you buy most often. Some cash back cards give you a low, flat percentage back on all your purchases, while others pay a higher percentage, but only on certain types of purchases. A card that pays 5% cash back at restaurants is a great deal if you eat out all the time, but if you almost never do, you’re better off with a card that pays a smaller bonus at stores you actually use.
Email marketing provides direct line to your audience and results in qualified traffic from people who are truly interested in your brand. Most individuals who subscribe to your newsletter already have some sort of contact or familiarity with your brand. They could have signed up at an event, one of your stores or on your website. Regular email newsletters keep your brand top of mind and renew audience awareness and interest.

Content is the foundation of any marketing strategy, a tenant that holds true with inbound marketing as well. Inbound marketing tactics utilize blogs, landing pages, articles, white papers, ebooks, web pages, and more. Blogging is especially effective in driving traffic because of the nature of SEO. Blog articles and web pages are indexed by search engines so that readers can easily find the content they are searching for. The more content you publish, the greater your chances are of being discovered by your target audience. New content shows search engines that your site is active and reflects well on reliability.
We will NOT be held responsible for any search engine penalties your website may receive if you don’t follow search engine’s guidelines, including (but not limited) to spammy comments, heavy and spammy linking from guest posts, spammy guest blogging, publishing poor quality content with a sole intent to gain backlinks, buying or exchanging backlinks, etc.
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